IBM scientists tout tool to possibly build atom-size computers

This has interesting possibilities. I wonder where this fits in with Quantum computing?

spin-excitationcu-cunsurface.jpg

IBM scientists tout tool to possibly build atom-size computers

Scientists at an IBM research center in Silicon Valley have created a magnetism-manipulating tool suited to building molecular computers, the company revealed.

The development was touted as a step toward making computers based on the spin of electrons and atoms.

“We have a tool in place to develop the product of the future,” said German-born researcher Andreas Heinrich of IBM’s Almaden Research Center in San Jose, California.

“We all know we can’t shrink the silicon-based technology used in today’s computers down to the atomic level. We have to look at a radically different concept, and that is what we are doing here.”

The new method was called “spin-excitation spectroscopy” and used a specially-designed microscope capable of creating magnetic fields as much as 140,000 times stronger than that of the Earth, scientists said.

Researchers were able to manipulate atoms and measure the effect their spins had on each other, according to IBM.

“We can study the magnetic phenomena used in hard drives, but on the scale of single atoms,” Heinrich told AFP. “It could enable us, in the very far future, to be able to build computer devices on an atomic scale.”

The above link to the Yahoo News article is now dead. Here is a link to the article at freerepublic. I will also post the entire article in the comments section.

About the image:
This scanning tunneling microscope image shows a 28-nanometer square area of terraced copper and copper nitride (CuN) where IBM researchers performed atom-scale magnetism experiments. The smooth flat surfaces are copper metal; the cross-hatched, slightly depressed areas are patches of insulating CuN. The humps on the surfaces are the manganese structures, one to 10 atoms long.

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  1. IBM Scientists Develop New Way to Explore and Control Atom-Scale Magnetism
    MarketWatch ^ | 2:00 PM ET Mar 30, 2006 | Mike Ross IBM

    Posted on 03/31/2006 1:30:58 PM PST by Ernest_at_the_Beach

    SAN JOSE, CA, Mar 30, 2006 (MARKET WIRE via COMTEX) — IBM scientists have developed a powerful new technique for exploring and controlling magnetism at its fundamental atomic level.

    The new method promises to be an important tool in the quest not only to understand the operation of future computer circuit and data-storage elements as they shrink toward atomic dimensions, but also to lay the foundation for new materials and computing devices that leverage atom-scale magnetic phenomena.

    “We have developed a window into the atomic heart of magnetism,” said Andreas Heinrich, research staff member at IBM’s Almaden Research Center in San Jose, California. “We can now position atoms and then measure and control their magnetic interactions within precisely designed structures.”

    The new method, called spin-excitation spectroscopy, uses IBM’s special low-temperature scanning tunneling microscope designed for use with a broad range of magnetic fields up to 140,000 times stronger than the earth’s. The researchers first move atoms into position and then measure the interactions between their atomic spins, which are the fundamental sources of magnetism.

    In their experiments, the IBM researchers created chains of up to 10 manganese atoms atop an extremely thin electrically insulating surface and measured how the magnetic properties changed as each new atom was added. They found that chains with an even number of atoms had no net magnetism, while chains with an odd number of atoms showed net magnetism.

    “This kind of exploratory research is essential for the long-term future of the computer industry,” said Gian-Luca Bona, manager of science and technology at IBM Almaden. “Sometime in the next couple of decades, it will be impossibly difficult to continue improving transistors and other traditional microelectronic circuit elements by simply shrinking them. We will then need alternative structures and, perhaps, altogether different ways of computing. Techniques like this can help us gain the knowledge needed to create those alternatives.”

    These new experimental results are published in today’s issue of Science Express, Science magazine’s online advance publication of reports judged by the journal’s editors to be especially timely and important. The report’s authors are Cyrus Hirjibehedin, Christopher Lutz and Heinrich.

    In addition to exploring the basic properties of magnetic materials, the IBM researchers expect to use this new technique in the future to:

    — Explore the limits of magnetic data storage, by engineering the energy
    required to flip the collective orientation of a small number of
    magnetically coupled atoms.
    — Determine the feasibility of spin-based wires and a spin version of
    the molecular-motion cascade, the group’s 2002 achievement that included an
    arrangement of molecules that formed a working computer circuit some
    260,000 times smaller than its conventional design in silicon (or about 50
    years of circuit-shrinking at Moore’s Law pace).
    — Investigate how engineered spin interactions could be applied to
    quantum information systems, such as quantum computers.

    Background

    The new technique builds upon the IBM team’s development in late 2004 of spin-flip spectroscopy — a method for measuring magnetic properties of single atoms. Those experiments were done using an aluminum oxide insulating surface, but it was impossible to move atoms around on that surface. Indeed, while the IBM team first showed how to use the STM to move and position individual atoms atop metal surfaces back in 1990, until now no one has been able to move and position atoms on insulating surfaces because those surfaces tend to be atomically complex, rough, easily damaged and/or have varying attractive forces with the atoms. Experiments measuring atomic magnetic properties require an insulating surface because the large numbers of available conducting electrons within a metal would overwhelm and cancel out any spin variations from individual atoms being studied.

    For their spin-excitation spectroscopy experiments, the IBM scientists were successful when they converted sections of a smooth copper metal surface into a one-atom-thick coating of copper nitride, an insulator.

    Spintronics is an emerging class of new electronic circuits that exploit the magnetic orientations of electrons and atoms — the quantum property called “spin” — in addition to or instead of the traditional flow of electrical charges. Electron spins can be either “up” or “down.” Aligning spins in a material creates magnetism. Most materials are non-magnetic because they have equal numbers of up and down electron spins, which cancel each other. But materials such as iron and cobalt have an unequal numbers of electron spins and thus are magnetic.

    Household magnets are made of ferromagnetic materials, such as iron or cobalt. Their spins tend to align in the same direction and thus produce the external magnetic field that we can see or feel. Other magnetic materials, such as manganese, are called antiferromagnetic because their atomic spins tend to align in the opposite direction from their neighbors, which yields no external magnetic field but interesting spintronic properties.

    This new result is the latest in a series of achievements in nanoscale science at IBM Research. Two IBM scientists in Switzerland won the 1986 Nobel Prize in Physics for their early 1980s invention of the scanning tunneling microscope (STM). Over the past 16 years, IBM Almaden researchers have pioneered the use of STMs for positioning atoms into precisely designed structures that reveal fundamental atomic-scale properties and may have potential uses in information technology. The group’s results include:

    — Positioning individual atoms on surfaces,
    — Inventing an electrical switch with a single atom as the active
    element,
    — Inventing a new kind of electron trap called a “quantum corral,”
    — Discovering the “quantum mirage” effect, in which an electron’s
    quantum wave pattern is used to project information,
    — Demonstrating a complete functional computational circuit based on the
    “molecule cascade” motion of individual molecules that is 260,000 times
    smaller than that which could be made by the best contemporary chip-making
    methods, and
    — Demonstrating spin-flip spectroscopy: using an STM to probe the spin-
    state of a single atom and measure the energy required to flip a single
    spin.

    Image Available: http://www.marketwire.com/mw/frame_mw?attachid=251748

    Contact: Mike Ross 408-927-1283 mikeross@almaden.ibm.com

    SOURCE: IBM

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